Comparing Runway Excursion Factors
Winter, S. R., Leib, S. M., Geske, R. C., Spence, T. B., Sperlak, L. A., Rudari, L., & Cestari, C. (2013). Comparing Runway Excursion Factors. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual International Air Safety Summit. Flight Safety Foundation: Washington, DC
The purpose of this study was to examine causal factors that result in landing runway excursion accidents, which account for a high percentage of aircraft accidents. The project first worked to compare two independent studies for similarities and differences in the causal and contributing factors that result in landing overrun and veer off excursions. While some differences were noted in the coding of data, the top factors appear to be consistent across the two reports: contaminated runways, landing long, and approach condition
The Sustainability of FAR Part 117: Flight and Duty Limitation and Rest Requirements for Flight Crewmembers
Rudari, L., Sperlak, L. A., Geske, R. C., Jones III, G. E., & Johnson, M. E. (2014, September). The Sustainability of FAR Part 117: Flight and Duty Limitation and Rest Requirements for Flight Crewmembers. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 1969-1973). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.
The Federal Aviation Administration addressed fatigue risk for Part 121 pilots in 14 C.F.R. Part 117, which came into effect in January 2014. Fatigue jeopardizes safety in the sense that it increases the likelihood for pilot error which could potentially lead to an accident. The new regulations recognize for the first time risks to safety such as changes to natural circadian rhythms and “jetlag”. A sustainability analysis was conducted for the new rest requirements which required a systematic approach to address the four key components of sustainability: economic, social, environmental, and organizational. This analysis primarily focuses on organizational aspects of 14 C.F.R. Part 117 sustainability. This study analyzed responses from 53 self-identified non-pilots (i.e. management, maintenance, safety personnel) to determine their perceptions of the new rest requirements for pilots in the industry. The responses indicate that there is a slight increase in perceived overall safety; however, the respondents reported that this new regulation would have a slightly negative effect on the organizational operations.
Sustainability Reporting Practices of Group III U.S. Air Carriers
Rudari, L., & Johnson, M. E. (2015). Sustainability Reporting Practices of Group III US Air Carriers. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 2(2), 5.
Once a side note, sustainability reporting has become an important issue for companies and airlines globally and in the U.S. This exploratory study examined the sustainability reporting practices of U.S. passenger and cargo air carriers with total revenues exceeding $1 billion classified as Group III air carriers by the U.S Department of Transportation. The results showed that 53% of Group III air carriers published sustainability reports. Out of these 53%, all except one referenced the Global Reporting framework in their sustainability reports. Forty percent or 6 out of 15 carriers participated in at least one Carbon Disclosure Project questionnaire. Based on these results, it appears that the U.S. airline industry has considerable room for improvement in terms of the percentage of companies involved in sustainability reporting.
Pilot Perceptions on Impact of Crew Rest Regulations on Safety and Fatigue
Rudari, L., Johnson, M. E., Geske, R. C., & Sperlak, L. A. (2016). Pilot perceptions on impact of crew rest regulations on safety and fatigue. International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 3(1), 4.
The risk of fatigue on pilot performance and safety is well recognized in aviation. In response to increased safety concerns, the Federal Aviation Administration addressed fatigue risk for passenger airline pilots in Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 117, which included accommodations to address fatigue related risk-factors such as circadian rhythm and the phenomenon commonly described as jet-lag. The rule became effective in January 2014. A survey was conducted in March and April of 2014 to better understand pilot perceptions of the new Part 117 rule. This study analyzed survey responses from 92 self-identified pilots to determine the effect of these new regulations on pilot perception of safety and level of fatigue. The analysis of survey responses to 5-point Likert-scale questions suggested that 43% of pilots felt a positive impact on overall safety, contrasted to 30% of pilots who felt a negative impact on overall safety. Twenty-seven percent of pilots indicated that Part 117 did not have an impact on safety. For perceived level of fatigue, 35% of participants felt a positive impact of Part 117, whereas 33% of participants indicated a negative impact on their fatigue level. Thirty-three percent of participants felt no impact of Part 117 on their overall fatigue level. When asked if cargo operations should be included in the new regulations, 79% of respondents agreed. A qualitative analysis of open-ended comments provided by pilots revealed that negative perceptions of the new regulations were most frequently mentioned.